Archives December 27, 2019

The Nubian museum in Aswan

The Nubian Museum is the best place to visit in Aswan

The Nubian Museum in Aswan is built to tribute the Nubian culture and high light the influence of the Nubian people and Nubia on Egyptian history.

The Nubian culture is as old as the Egyptian culture, it was existing along the Nile banks near the borders with Sudan.

By the construction of the high dam in Aswan, Nubia was destroyed and submerged by water, and all of the local people had to relocate.

However, UNESCO did serious efforts with the Egyptian government to save Nubia treasures and also some of the pharaonic temples, as well.

After an Egyptian initiative, UNESCO started an international appeal for the biggest process of monuments relocation in history;

More than 40 countries contribute in this operation either by sending workers to help in the rescue mission or by funding to help Egypt in saving these monuments.

This campaign was called,” Nubia rescue campaign”, this process took more than 20 years,

and it was capable of relocating 22 monuments and put them in a new location safe from the high water level.

Some of the monuments that have been rescued are:- the Temple of Dabod, the Temple of Calabsha, the Temple of Dendara,

The Temple of Beit Al Waly, the Temple of Amada and of course the famous and beautiful temple of Abu symbol and Philae Temple.

The Nubian museum Building history:-

Mahmoud Al-Hakim succeeded in designing the Museum to be in harmony with the area around it.

As the museum is surrounded by small mountains, huge rocks, and the beautiful sun of Aswan.

The wonderful lines of the museum’s architecture itself are enjoyable to watch.

outer view of The Nubian museum

The museum covers 50,000 squares meters, nestled into the hillside, and includes some gardens and building which is divided into parts or sections.

The museum is considered to be an entrance to the Nubian history

as it helps the visitors to know and see the beautiful history of this beautiful area.

Each monument and ruins has a brief description underneath it, which is written in English and Arabic.

The first attraction of the museum is its garden which contains more than eighty ancient monuments

and historical rocks, some of them were dedicated to Nubia’s gods.

In the garden, you can see some artificial waterfalls and lakes to remind with the Nile River and its flow into Nubia lands.

Many wild plants are planted in this area, it’s about 34,000 meters long.

The area contains a theatre that has regular Nubian shows for visitors.

To see the unique and amazing folkways of the Nubian culture,  and also contains a cave that has ancient drawings.

The Nubian Museum is made of two floors:-

The ground floor has the museum’s main gate, reception halls for visitors and exhibition halls.

The first floor has another exhibition hall, culture activities center and informational center.

When you first enter the museum, you need to walk to left direction to reach the starting point of the tour,

at first you can see some antiquities were discovered in Nubia about 3500 B.C.

The most fascinating monuments in this area include; a vessel made of an ostrich egg, bone comb with two giraffes carved on its handle.

In the” group A” area, you can see the relationship between the Nubia people and the people of southern Egypt.

These relationships were mainly based on the trading of wood, ivory and raw material, it’s also obvious that Elephant island was a trading center.

 

The most important exhibits of the area are: –

A polished quartz cosmetic palette which was used for crushing galena powder as it was used for eye make-up.

there is a beautiful vessel which decorated with a rowing boat, has multiple oars, some ostriches and numbers of the undulating line represent the water.

”Group C” tells the history of the new civilization in Nubia which started after the six pharaonic Dynasty decline or after the pyramids building period ended.

There is no real evidence that confirms the origin of the people who started the Nubian civilization, but the most accepted theory is that they came from the western desert.

The most beautiful displays of group C are:-

Tulip pots, a Meroitic offering table which has Meroitic writing on it, an ancient pot with a handle, statue of Harawa,

a crouching baby lion carved into clay, a statue of King Taharqa, a statue of Amenardis; she was the first Nubian princess to hold the title of Divine wife of Amun.

check our trips to Aswan:

KALABSHA AND NUBIAN MUSEUM TOURS IN ASWAN

FELUCCA RIDE TOURS IN ASWAN

ABU SIMBEL SOUND AND LIGHT SHOW

 

what is the secret of Giza pyramids? how were they built?

Pyramids of Giza it’s also called Ahramat Al-jizah and were built to endure eternity.

The monumental pyramids tombs are relics of the ancient Egyptians era and were constructed about 4,500 years ago.

Egypt’s pharaohs expected to turn into gods after death.

To prepare for the next world they built the temples and dedicated to the gods and massive different pyramid tombs for themselves.

filled with all the stuff each ruler would need and want to sustain and guide himself in the afterlife.

The pyramids were constructed on a rocky plateau near Giza in Northern Egypt on the west bank of the Nile

The pyramids of Giza were included in the seven wonders of the world in the old times

The ancient monuments and ruins of the Memphis, including the pyramids of Giza, Abusir, Dahshur, Abu Ruwaysh, and Saqqarah.

The pyramids’ names are Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu as the names of the kings, who built the pyramids.

1.Khufu pyramid:-

It is the oldest and northernmost pyramid, it also the greatest pyramid

As it’s the height from each side at the base is 230 meters and it’s original height was 147 meters.

Khufu pyramid, the great pyramid of Giza

2- Khafre pyramid:-

It’s the middle pyramid, Khafre was the fourth king of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty;

its height is 216 meters on every side and its height is originally 143 meters.

Khafre pyramid

3-Menkaure pyramid:

It’s the last and southernmost pyramid, the structure measures 109 meters from each side, it’s height is 66 meters

All of the three pyramids were robbed from the inside and outside during the ancient and medieval times,

so even the grave goods and statues that were originally saved and deposited in the burial chambers have vanished.

the pyramids of Giza

Also, the height of pyramids is not the same anymore because of their outermost casings f smooth and white limestone, have been completely stripped.

For example, the great pyramid’s height now is only 183 meters.

However, Khafre pyramid still has the outer limestone casing but only at the top part

Near every pyramid, there is a mortuary temple was constructed, and it was linked to a valley temple by a sloping causeway

Near from this site, there are also some subsidiary pyramids, where some members of the royal family were buried

Khufu’s pyramid is probably the most massive and colossal building ever built on planet earth

The side of the pyramid is raised by angle 51°52′ and they are accurately directed to the four cardinal points of the compass

The core of the great pyramid is made of thinner light-colored limestone, the outer casing, and the burial chamber that is built of big blocks of granite.

About 2.3 million stone rocks were cut, transferred and gathered to construct the 5.75 million ton structure.

Which is considered until now a masterpiece of ancient Egypt that display the incredible engineering ability and technical skills

The great pyramid entrance is on the north side, it’s about 18 meters higher than the ground level

A sloppy passageway descends from the entrance through the interior masonry of the pyramid,

which penetrates the rocks on which the site it’s located, and it ends in the unfinished underground chamber.

From the descending passageway branches an ascending corridor 

it leads to a room called the Queen’s chamber and also to an amazing great slanting gallery and it’s about 46 meters long.

The upper side from this great gallery is a narrow and long corridor open access to the burial room proper.

it’s also known as the king’s chamber is entirely roofed and lined in the granite.

This chamber has two small and narrow shafts that run obliquely through out the masonry to outside the great pyramid.

None knows if these shafts were designed for ventilation only or for a religious purpose.

There are five compartments separated from each other by huge horizontal granite slabs.

It’s possible that the purpose of these granite slabs was to protect the ceiling of the burial chamber from the massive and huge activities during the construction process.

The answer about, how were the pyramids built?

Never was satisfying and logic answer

However, the most logical answer is that the ancient Egyptians used an encircling and a sloppy embankment brick, earth, and sand

The huge block was carried up the ramp by using rollers, levers, sledges

an ancient Greek historian said that it took 100.000 men and 20 years to construct the great pyramid.

The great Sphinx lies near Khafre’s valley temple to the south side of Khufu’s pyramid.

The great Sphinx is carved into the limestone, it has facial characteristics of a  human male.

But its body is for a recumbent lion; it’s about 73 meters long and 20 meters high.

In 1925, a pit tomb was discovered, it was containing the transferred burial equipment that belonged to Queen Hetepheres, Khufu’s mother.

It’s location near the upper side of Khufu’s causeway.

In the late 1980s and 90s, some excavations were discovered in the surrounded area of the pyramids.

that show the workers’ districts that including workshops, storage areas, bakeries, and the small tombs which were for the laborers and artisans.

What we know about the builders that they were skilled, had good nutrition and lived in nearby temporary districts.

 Archaeological digs on the incredible site have revealed a very well organized community, rich with resources, that must have been supported by a strong central authority.

It’s possible that communities in Egypt helped the workers, and supply them with food and other essentials,

for what became in some ways a national project to declare the wealth and authority of the ancient pharaohs.

Check out our trips to the Pyramids of Giza.

related post:

what is the story of the Great Sphinx? who was the king building it?